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What are Reference Electrodes?

Electrochemistry is the study of chemical reactions, which take place at the interface of an electrode, usually a solid metal  or a semiconductor, and an ionic conductor, the electrolyte. These reactions involve electric charges moving between the electrodes and the electrolyte (or ionic species in a solution). Thus electrochemistry deals with the interaction between electrical energy and chemical change.

When a chemical reaction is caused by an externally supplied current, as in electrolysis, or if an electrical current is produced by a spontaneous chemical reaction as in a battery, it is called an electrochemical reaction.  Chemical reactions, where electrons are transferred directly between molecules and/or atoms, are called oxidation-reduction or (redox) reactions. In general, electrochemistry describes the overall reactions when individual redox reactions are separate but connected by an external electric circuit and an intervening electrolyte.

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